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The Saker
A bird's eye view of the vineyard

offsite link Iran Says Houthis Use Its Military Know-How In Battle Against Saudi Arabia Wed Sep 23, 2020 23:41 | amarynth
South Front Iran has supplied Ansar Allah (also known as the Houthis) with technical expertise and know-how, a spokesman for the Iranian Armed Forces Brigadier General Abolfazl Shekarchi said on

offsite link Sinophobia, Lies and Hybrid War Wed Sep 23, 2020 19:15 | amarynth
by Pepe Escobar and with permission cross-posted with Asia Times It took one minute for President Trump to introduce a virus at the virtual 75th UN General Assembly, blasting ?the

offsite link Moveable Feast Cafe 2020/09/23 ? Open Thread Wed Sep 23, 2020 15:30 | Herb Swanson
2020/09/23 14:30:01Welcome to the ‘Moveable Feast Cafe’. The ‘Moveable Feast’ is an open thread where readers can post wide ranging observations, articles, rants, off topic and have animate discussions of

offsite link Jewish Settler Chief: ?Palestinians have no right to a state, Bible says Israel for the Jews? Wed Sep 23, 2020 14:36 | amarynth
Middle East Observer   Description: In an extended interview with the Israeli i24News Arabic channel, Jewish settler leader Daniella Weiss says that Palestinians have no right to establish a state,

offsite link Weekly China Newsbrief and Sitrep Wed Sep 23, 2020 12:29 | amarynth
By Godfree Roberts selected from his extensive weekly newsletter : Here Comes China Editorial Comments Now that the excitement of all the major Heads of Countries virtually speaking at the

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Public Inquiry
Interested in maladministration. Estd. 2005

offsite link Sarah McInerney and political impartiality

offsite link Did RTE journalists collude against Sinn Fein? Anthony

offsite link Irish Examiner bias Anthony

offsite link RTE: Propaganda ambush of Sinn Fein Anthony

offsite link Hong Kong and democracy Anthony

Public Inquiry >>

Human Rights in Ireland
A Blog About Human Rights

offsite link Right to Water Mon Aug 03, 2020 19:13 | Human Rights

offsite link Human Rights Fri Mar 20, 2020 16:33 | Human Rights

offsite link Turkish President Calls On Greece To Comply With Human Rights on Syrian Refugee Issues Wed Mar 04, 2020 17:58 | Human Rights

offsite link US Holds China To Account For Human Rights Violations Sun Oct 13, 2019 19:12 | Human Rights

offsite link UN Human Rights Council Should Address Human Rights Crisis in Cambodia Sat Aug 31, 2019 13:41 | Human Rights

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Spirit of Contradiction

offsite link The Party and the Ballot Box Sun Jul 14, 2019 22:24 | Gavin Mendel-Gleason

offsite link On The Decline and Fall of The American Empire and Socialism Sat Jan 26, 2019 01:52 | S. Duncan

offsite link What is Dogmatism and Why Does It Matter? Wed Mar 21, 2018 08:10 | Sylvia Smith

offsite link The Case of Comrade Dallas Mon Mar 19, 2018 19:44 | Sylvia Smith

offsite link Review: Do Religions Evolve? Mon Aug 14, 2017 19:54 | Dara McHugh

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  • Kevin Barret Unz Review Podcast
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KevinBarret
A Collection of Interesting, Important, and Controversial Perspectives Largely Excluded from the American Mainstream Media

offsite link Tribute to Andre Vltchek: ?West?s Sadistic Personality Disorder?, by Kevin Barrett Wed Sep 23, 2020 05:00 | Kevin Barrett
One of the most vibrantly alive people I met, Andrť Vltchek, just died. Though he barely made it past his mid-fifties he got in a lot more living than a hundred average Americans who live to collect their pensions. Allah yarhamhu. In honor of this great Truth Jihadi we?re replaying this 2018 interview: The West...

offsite link Andre Vltchek Dead?Murdered by NATO/Zionists?, by Kevin Barrett Tue Sep 22, 2020 05:00 | Kevin Barrett
We just lost one of the world?s greatest journalists?and one of my radio show?s most eloquent and informative regular guests. Andre Vltchek, globetrotting scourge of the Western power elite, mysteriously dropped dead while riding in a chauffeured car between Samsun and Istanbul. ABC Newsreports: According to Turkish media, police recorded the case as a ?suspicious...

offsite link Nita Renfrew on ?History of the American Militia Movement?, by Kevin Barrett Sat Sep 19, 2020 05:00 | Kevin Barrett
Nita M. Renfrew is the author of A History of the American Militia Movement: America?s Shooting Edge?completed in 1999, the first several chapters self-published in 2010. (Renfrew, an MSM insider, was shocked to discover that the militia movement was right about the Oklahoma City bombing, the Federal Reserve, and much more.) Today, as the militia...

offsite link Eric Margolis on Trump & Military Service?and More, by Kevin Barrett Tue Sep 15, 2020 05:00 | Kevin Barrett
In his new article ?Is This the Man with his Finger on the Button?? award-winning journalist Eric Margolis offers a nuanced yet devastating assessment of Trump?s alleged remarks calling fallen soldiers ?losers? and ?suckers?: ?Our commander-in-chief Trump reportedly dodged the Vietnam era draft six times, at least once because of a little bone spur in...

offsite link Priest and Nonviolence Activist Rev. Emmanuel Charles McCarthy on 60s Assassinations, 9/11, COVID, b... Thu Sep 10, 2020 05:00 | Kevin Barrett
I recently encountered the work of Rev. Emmanuel Charles McCarthy through his review of The Martyrdom of Thomas Merton, reprinted below. (Check out my interview with co-author David Martin.) Clearly ?Charlie? McCarthy is one of those rare American religious leaders who are both well-informed and committed to seeking and speaking the truth. In this interview...

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The Gary Null Show

Gary takes on the real issues that the mainstream media is afraid to tackle. Tune in to find out the latest about health news, healing, politics, and the economy.

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offsite link The Gary Null Show - 09.24.20 Thu Sep 24, 2020 18:58

The Gary Null Show is here to inform you on the best news in health, healing, the environment.

 

Racism has been redefined' Bret Weinstein on woke science & how humans succeed - BQ #31

Biologist, evolutionary theorist and member of the 'intellectual dark web' Bret Weinstein talks about the woke movement, how they have impacted the sciences and the US election. Weinstein talks to The Sun's Steven Edginton for 'Burning Questions'.

offsite link The Gary Null Show - 09.23.20 Wed Sep 23, 2020 20:01

Economic Outlook During the Corona Pandemic Leading up to the Elections

Gerald Celente is one of today’s pioneers in trend strategy and identifying the developments of change occurring in our world. He founded the Trends Research Institute in Kingston NY and is the publisher of the Trends Journal that has been in publication since 1980. Gerald has since become one of the nation’s most sought after diagnosticians and forecasters.   He is also the host of the weekly show "Trends This Week," heard every Wednesday at 11 am Eastern Time on the Progressive Radio Network. More information can be found on the Institute's website TrendsResearch.com

offsite link The Gary Null Show - 09.22.20 Tue Sep 22, 2020 19:13

Influence of a Novel Food-Grade Formulation of Red Chili Extract on Overweight Subjects
St. Thomas College (India), September 12 2020
Abstract

Capsaicinoids from pungent red chilies (Capsicum annum¬†and¬†Capsicum frutescens) have received significant attention as a natural supplement for the management of obesity. However, the consumption of chili extract at physiologically relevant dosage of capsaicinoids is a challenge owing to its pungency and gastrointestinal discomforts. The present study reports the systemic absorption, safety and influence of a novel, food-grade, and sustained-release formulation of capsaicinoids-rich red chili extract using fenugreek dietary fiber (Capsifen¬ģ). Twenty-four healthy overweight subjects were randomized into placebo (n‚ÄČ=‚ÄČ12) and Capsifen (n‚ÄČ=‚ÄČ12) groups and supplemented with 200‚ÄČmg √ó 1/day of Capsifen (4‚ÄČmg capsaicinoids/day) for 28‚ÄČdays. Influence of Capsifen on eating behavior and appetite was followed by Three-Factor Eating Questionnaire (TFEQ) and Council of Nutrition Appetite Questionnaire (CNAQ), respectively. Consumption of Capsifen did not reveal any adverse events or deviations in hematology and biochemical parameters related to safety. However, a significant decrease in body weight (2.1%), w/h ratio (4%) and body mass index (BMI) (2.2%) were observed among Capsifen group when compared to placebo. The TFEQ and appetite analysis revealed a significant improvement in uncontrolled eating and reduction in appetite among Capsifen subjects. The UPLC-ESI-MS/MS analysis confirmed the absorption of capsaicinoids from CAP supplementation. The study further demonstrated the safety and tolerability of Capsifen at the investigational dosage. Thus, the significant reduction in anthropometric parameters such as body weight, w/h ratio, and BMI along with the improvement in eating behaviour as well as appetite, indicated the potential body weight management effect of Capsifen.

 

Study on the effect of rosemary and ginger essential oils against Klebsiella pneumoniae

 
Damanhour University and  Pharos University (Egypt), September 21, 2020
 

Klebsiella pneumoniae is a nosocomial pathogen in outbreaks of hospital infections. It is one of the major factors for morbidity and mortality in hospitalized patients especially those infected with colistin resistant pathogens. Many plant essential oils have antimicrobial activities and have been investigated as natural sources to combat multiple antibiotic resistances. Moreover; recent advances in phytonanotechnology have created exciting opportunities for the management of many infections. 

This study aims at investigating the antimicrobial and antibiofilm effect of rosemary and ginger essential oil-based nano-sized formulations on colistin resistant K. pneumonia clinical isolates.

Isolation and identification of 30 K. pneumonia isolates from different human samples was done followed by antibiotic susceptibility testing and detection of biofilm gene (mrkD). Examination of the activity of the tested essential oils and their chitosan nanoparticle formulations against the selected isolates was made by determination of their MICs using broth microdilution method followed by biofilm inhibition test and quantitative real-time PCR for the expression of mrkD gene in the presence of the oils and nanoparticles formulations compared to untreated bacterial isolates.

Our results showed that the minimum inhibitory concentrations of rosemary and ginger oils were found to be 1250 őľg/ml, nanostructured lipid carrier-rosemary oil and nanostructured lipid carrier-ginger oil were 625 őľg/ml and rosemary oil loaded chitosan nanoparticles and ginger oil loaded chitosan nanoparticles were 156 őľg/ml. Results also revealed complete (100%) inhibition for mrkD gene expression when compared to untreated K. pneumonia.¬†

We can conclude that oil loaded chitosan nanoparticles show a high antimicrobial and antibiofilm activity.

 

 

The unintended consequence of becoming empathetic

University of Michigan, September 16, 2020

When people say that they want to change things about their personalities, they might not know about the inadvertent consequences these changes could bring. In fact, changes in personality may also lead to changes in political ideologies, say researchers from Michigan State University and the University of Granada, who led the study.

"We found this interesting effect where people wanted to improve on things like being more emotionally connected to others -- or, becoming more empathetic," said William Chopik, assistant professor of psychology at MSU. "But we found that this leads to changes in their political souls as well, which maybe they weren't intending. We saw that in these personality changes toward greater empathy, people placed a lot more importance upon more liberal ideologies -- like how you should treat other people and take others' perspectives."

The study, published in the most recent edition of Journal of Research in Personality, is the first to look at shifts in personalities and morals due to volitional change -- or, changes one brings upon oneself.

Chopik and co-authors from Southern Methodist University and the University of Illinois asked 414 volunteer participants to take a weekly questionnaire. Such questions included how they would react in certain situations, if they wanted to improve or change themselves, how they felt about helping others and other personality-related queries. Additionally, the researchers measured participants' "empathic concern" -- or, feelings that would arise when they saw someone in need or doing poorly. The researchers continued the weekly questionnaire for four months.

"Among the questions, we asked participants how they felt about five broad moral foundations: care, fairness, loyalty, authority and purity. We tracked sentiments week-to-week," Chopik said. "While these are common for personality-related assessments, individual moral foundations can also help explain attitudes toward various ideologies, ethical issues and policy debates."

Generally, liberal and progressive people tend to prioritize two of the five moral foundations: care and fairness; whereas, conservatives draw from all five -- including the more binding foundations: loyalty to the ingroup, respect for authority, and observance of purity and sanctity standards, Chopik said.

"Our study shows that when people are motivated to change, they can successfully do so," he said. "What we were surprised to find was that an upward trajectory for something like perspective-taking aligned with the person's shift towards the more liberal foundations."

The researchers did not intend for their study to generalize personality traits of one political party or another, but rather to see if -- and how -- a person could change themselves and what might be a result of their "moral transformation."

"Being a better perspective-taker exposes you to all sorts of new ideas, so it makes sense that it would change someone because they would be exposed to more diverse arguments," Chopik said. "When you become more empathic, it opens up a lot of doors to change humans in other ways, including how they think about morality and ideology -- which may or may not have been intended."

 

 

Evidence for Korean Ginseng's effects on improving bone health

Hospital of Chonbuk National University, Sept. 9, 2019

The Korea Ginseng Association introduced new evidence of Korean Ginseng's efficacy on bone health.

Korean Ginseng refers to ginsengs produced in Korea. Ginseng's scientific name, Panax ginseng, is named after the Greek word 'Panax', meaning cure for all diseases; indeed, ginseng has been sought after medicine since the ancient times. It has been proven to improve immune system and fatigue previously, and now even for bone health, as seen in recent research released in Korea.

In June of 2019, Rural Development Administration, Korea Research Institute of Bioscience & Biotechnology (KRIBB) and Hospital of Chonbuk National University confirmed the efficacy of Korean ginseng's efficacy on bone health in a research conducted for 3 years and followed up for another two years. The clinical application study was performed with three groups of female participants over the age of 40 and who suffer from bone loss. There were a total of 90 participants, with 30 participants in each group. The participants in the control group were given placebo, while the other groups were given ginseng extracts (3g per day and 1g per day). 

The results indicated that the level of osteocalcin was 11.6 times higher in the test group than the control group; the level of calcium was 3 times higher in the test group with 3g extracts as well. The change in Osteoarthritis rating before and after taking the extract was also significant, indicating ginseng's efficacy on improving pain and rigidity due to bone loss. 

In animal testing, ginseng extract (300mg per kg of mouse body mass) was administered for 8 weeks in Panax that were 112 weeks old. The result also indicated that bone density was 32% higher in the test group. The calcium concentration and bone formation effect were also higher in the test group. 

The Korea Ginseng Association's president Mr. Ban mentioned, "With this new evidence on ginseng's efficacy on bone health, we have even more pride for our Korean Ginseng. We hope to continue to find scientifically based evidence for the ginseng's benefits."

 
 

Immune system may have another job‚ÄĒcombatting depression

Yale University, September 18, 2020

An inflammatory autoimmune response within the central nervous system similar to one linked to neurodegenerative diseases such as multiple sclerosis (MS) has also been found in the spinal fluid of healthy people, according to a new Yale-led study comparing immune system cells in the spinal fluid of MS patients and healthy subjects. The research, published Sept. 18 in the journal¬†Science Immunology, suggests these immune cells may play a role other than protecting against microbial invaders‚ÄĒprotecting our mental health.

The results buttress an emerging theory that gamma interferons, a type of immune cell that helps induce and modulate a variety of immune system responses, may also play a role in preventing depression in healthy people.

"We were surprised that normal spinal fluid would be so interesting," said David Hafler, the William S. and Lois Stiles Edgerly Professor of Neurology, professor of immunobiology and senior author of the study.

Previous research has shown that blocking gamma interferons and the T cells they help produce can cause depression-like symptoms in mice. Hafler notes that depression is also a common side effect in patients with MS treated with a different type of interferon.

Using a powerful new technology that allows a detailed examination of individual cells, the researchers show that while the characteristics of T cells in the spinal fluid of healthy people share similarities with those of MS patients, they lack the ability to replicate and cause the damaging inflammatory response seen in autoimmune diseases such as MS.

In essence, the immune system in the brains of all people is poised to make an inflammatory immune system response and may have another function than defending against pathogens, Hafler said.

"These T cells serve another purpose and we speculate that they may help preserve our mental health," he said.

Hafler said that his lab and colleagues at Yale plan to explore how immune system responses in the central nervous system might affect psychiatric disorders such as depression.

 

Avocado pulp improves cardiovascular and autonomic recovery following submaximal running

Sao Paulo State University (Brazil), August 23, 2020

Abstract

Previous studies have demonstrated that regular avocado consumption presents advantageous effects on cardiovascular system. However, little attention has been paid to the use of avocado as a dietary supplement, in particular, for individuals involved in physical exercise training. Therefore, this study aims to evaluate the effect of acute avocado pulp intake on cardiovascular and autonomic recovery subsequent to moderate exercise. Using a crossover, randomized, double-blind and placebo-controlled trial design, 16 healthy female adults underwent two protocols: Avocado pulp (600 mg in capsule) and placebo (600 mg starch in capsule). After the ingestion of Avocado pulp or placebo, the subjects were seated for 60 min at rest, followed by running on a treadmill at a submaximal level and then remained seated for 60 min during recovery from the exercise. Heart rate (HR), heart rate variability (HRV) [rMSSD, SD1, HF (ms2)] and skin conductance were evaluated before and during exercise, as well as during recovery. HR, systolic blood pressure, HRV and skin conductance recovered faster when subjects were given avocado pulp prior to exercise. In conclusion, avocado pulp improved cardiovascular and autonomic recovery after exercise, suggesting a reduced risk of cardiovascular events after exertion. The current results support the beneficial effects of ingestion of avocado prior to submaximal treadmill running.

 

Study shows vitamin E needed for proper nervous system development

Oregon State University, September 21, 2020

 

In research with key ramifications for women of childbearing age, findings by Oregon State University scientists show that embryos produced by vitamin E-deficient zebrafish have malformed brains and nervous systems.

"This is totally amazing - the brain is absolutely physically distorted by not having enough vitamin E," said Maret Traber, a professor in the OSU College of Public Health and Human Sciences.

The study led by Traber, the Ava Helen Pauling Professor at Oregon State's Linus Pauling Institute, was published today in Scientific Reports.

Zebrafish are a small freshwater species that go from a fertilized egg to a swimming fish in about five days. They are highly prized for studying the development and genetics of vertebrates. 

Zebrafish share a remarkable similarity to humans at the molecular, genetic and cellular levels, meaning many findings are immediately relevant to humans. Embryonic zebrafish are of special interest because they develop quickly, are transparent and are easy to care for.

Vitamin E was discovered in 1922, identified because it was essential for fertilized rat eggs to culminate in live births.

"Why does an embryo need vitamin E? We've been chasing that for a long time," said Traber, a leading authority on vitamin E who has been researching the micronutrient for three decades. "With this newest study we actually started taking pictures so we could visualize: Where is the brain? Where is the brain forming? How does vitamin E fit into this picture?"

In an embryo, a brain primordium and the neural tube appear early and will form the nervous system and "innervate" - supply with nerves - all organs and body structures. Without vitamin E, the zebrafish embryos showed neural tube defects and brain defects.

"They were kind of like folic acid-deficient neural tube defects, and now we have pictures to show the neural tube defects and brain defects and that vitamin E is right on the closing edges of the cells that are forming the brain," Traber said. 

In healthy organisms, neural crest cells drive the creation of facial bones and cartilage and innervate the body, building the peripheral nervous system.

"Acting as stem cells, the crest cells are important for the brain and spinal cord and also go on to be the cells of about 10 different organ systems including the heart and liver," Traber said. "By having those cells get into trouble with vitamin E deficiency, basically the entire embryo formation is dysregulated. It is no wonder we see embryo death with vitamin E deficiency."

Traber likens it to the children's game KerPlunk, in which kids take turns pulling out the straws that support several dozen marbles in a vertical tube. When the wrong straw is pulled out, everything collapses; vitamin E is the straw whose extraction brings down the house on embryo development, especially with the brain and nervous system.

"Now we're at the point where we're so close being able to say exactly what's wrong when there isn't enough vitamin E but at the same time we're very far away because we haven't found what are the genes that are changing," she said. "What we know is the vitamin E-deficient embryos lived to 24 hours and then started dying off. At six hours there was no difference, by 12 hours you see the differences but they weren't killing the animals, and at 24 hours there were dramatic changes that were about to cause the tipping point of total catastrophe."

Vitamin E, known scientifically as alpha-tocopherol, has many biologic roles and in human diets is most often provided by oils, such as olive oil. It is found in high levels in foods such as hazelnuts, sunflower seeds and avocados.

Vitamin E is a group of eight compounds - four tocopherols and four tocotrienols - distinguished by their chemical structure. Alpha-tocopherol is what vitamin E commonly refers to and is found in supplements and in foods associated with a European diet; gamma-tocopherol is the type of vitamin E most commonly found in a typical American diet.

"Plants make eight different forms of vitamin E, and you absorb them all, but the liver only puts alpha-tocopherol back into the bloodstream," said Traber. "All of the other forms are metabolized and excreted. I've been concerned about women and pregnancy because of reports that women with low vitamin E in their plasma have increased risk of miscarriage."

Joining Traber on the study were Brian Head of the Linus Pauling Institute, Jane La Du and Robyn Tanguay of the OSU College of Agricultural Sciences and Chrissa Kioussi of the OSU College of Pharmacy.

The Oregon Veterinary Diagnostic Lab supported the research with technical assistance, and the Ava Helen Pauling Endowment and the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences of the National Institutes of Health contributed toward the study's funding.

 

Lactobacillus rhamnosus attenuates bone loss and maintains bone health 

All India Medical Institute (India), September 18, 2020

 

According to news reporting based on a preprint abstract, “Osteoporosis is a systemic-skeletal disorder characterized by enhanced fragility of bones leading to increased rates of fractures and morbidity in large number of populations. Probiotics are known to be involved in management of various-inflammatory diseases including osteoporosis.

“But no study till date had delineated the immunomodulatory potential of Lactobacillus rhamnosus (LR) in bone-health.

“In the present study, we examine the effect of probiotic-LR on bone-health in osteoporotic (Ovx) mice model.

‚ÄúWe observed that administration of LR attenuated bone-loss in Ovx mice. Both the cortical and trabecular bone-content of LR treated group was significantly higher than Ovx-group. Remarkably, the percentage of osteoclastogenic-CD4+Ror{gamma}t... cells at distinct immunological sites such as BM, spleen, LN and PP were significantly reduced, whereas the percentage of anti-osteoclastogenic-CD4+Foxp3+... and CD8+Foxp3+Tregs were significantly enhanced in LR-treated group thereby resulting in inhibition of bone-loss. The immunomodulatory-role of LR was further supported by serum-cytokine data with a significant reduction in proinflammatory-cytokines (IL-6, IL-17 and TNF-) along with enhancement in anti-inflammatory-cytokines (IL-10, IFN-{gamma}) in LR treated-group. Altogether, the present study for the first time establishes the osteoprotective role of LR on bone-health, thus highlighting the potential of LR in the treatment and management of various bone related diseases including osteoporosis.‚ÄĚ

 

 

offsite link The Gary Null Show - 09.21.20 Mon Sep 21, 2020 20:07

Vitamin D supplementation can reduce cancer death risk by 16%, study shows

Cornell University, September 18, 2020

 

A recent review published in the British Medical Journal analyzed studies on vitamin D supplementation. Researchers from the United States and China found that it reduces the risk of cancer-related death by 16 percent.

Vitamin D linked to reduced risk of cancer death

There are¬†three sources of vitamin D: from one‚Äôs diet, from supplements and through sunlight exposure. In the case of the latter, the body naturally produces the micronutrient, leading to its moniker ‚Äúthe sunshine vitamin.‚ÄĚ

The cancer-related benefits of vitamin D have been reported numerous times in the past.¬†One of the first studies¬†demonstrated a link between non-skin¬†cancers and the levels of sunlight¬†that fall in different geographic latitudes.¬†According to its lead researcher, Frank Apperly, the sunlight gave ‚Äúa relative cancer immunity.‚ÄĚ

While Apperly’s study was largely ignored during its time, it was rediscovered later on and more studies on the link between cancer and vitamin D appeared. For instance, previous research proposed that vitamin D deficiency increases the risk of colon and prostate cancer.

For the current study, the researchers looked at 52 randomized controlled trials that compared the effects of vitamin D supplementation to those of a placebo or no treatment. About 7,450 participants were included in the studies.

Results showed that vitamin D supplementation reduced cancer death risk by 16 percent. The finding was particular to cancer-related death as all-cause mortality risk remained virtually unchanged after supplementation.

The researchers added that the reduced risk of cancer death was best observed among participants who took supplements of vitamin D3 ‚ÄĒ¬†what the human body produces naturally¬†upon exposure to sunlight. Vitamin D3 is also found in animal-based foods such as¬†egg yolk¬†and¬†fish oil.

They recommended taking vitamin D3 supplements for at least three years to reap its benefit. They explained that among the trials that they examined, those that involved longer supplementation showed greater evidence for the cancer-related benefit of vitamin D3. 

‚ÄúAnother finding from subgroup analysis suggested that [‚Ķ]¬†the benefit of reduced mortality was seen in trials with longer follow-up but not in those with a shorter follow-up. According to these findings, supplementation with vitamin D3 for at least three years should be considered,‚Ä̬†wrote the researchers.

More studies on the anti-cancer benefit of vitamin D

Recent studies also found the link between reduced risk of cancer-related death and vitamin D supplementation.

In a recent study published in the Journal of Clinical Oncology, researchers looked at previous research that examined the use of vitamin D versus a placebo over at least three years. The studies included almost 80,000 cancer patients with an average age of 68.

They found that those who took vitamin D supplements for three years and more had a 13 percent reduced risk of cancer-related death.

‚ÄúThe difference in the mortality rate between the vitamin D and placebo groups was statistically significant enough that it showed just how important it might be among the cancer population,‚ÄĚ said¬†lead author Tarek Haykal of the¬†Michigan State University¬†and the¬†Hurley Medical Center¬†in Flint, Michigan.

In another study published in the New England Journal of Medicine, researchers randomly assigned half of 25,800 participants to vitamin D supplementation and the other half to a placebo. They were followed up for an average of five years.

The researchers found that cancer-related deaths in the vitamin D group were reduced by 17 percent compared to the placebo group. When participants had been taking vitamin D for more than two years, deaths were reduced by 25 percent.

These findings illustrate that vitamin D can help reduce the risk of dying from cancer.

 

 

Mango Leaf Extract's brain-boosting capab... revealed after 5 year R&D study

Northumbria University (UK), September 16, 2020

A new study has been published that builds upon previous research showing ‚Äėexperiential‚Äô benefits from the Zynamite ingredient platform. The new clinical trial, led by Professor David Kennedy, Director of the Brain, Performance and Nutrition Research Centre at Northumbria University and published in Nutrients, suggests a rapid and sustained boost for a wide range of cognitive functions after a single use of the ingredient. Zynamite is a patent-pending, proprietary Mangifera indica extract, standardized to ‚Č• 60% mangiferin, developed from sustainably harvested mango leaves. A self-affirmed GRAS ingredient, it has a portfolio of safety data and has been the subject of three pre-clinical and now seven clinical studies that demonstrate performance enhancement in both cognitive and physical performance.¬†

The new study is indicative of a robust and continuing program of scientific study supporting Zynamite and underscores its potential as a leading ingredient for cognitive and physical performance. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover study, published in 2019, was conducted to determine whether a single dose of Zynamite administered one hour before exercise would increase cycle-sprint performance. Subjects performed three Wingate sprint tests interspaced by 4 minutes and a final 15-second sprint after induced ischemia (blood flow restriction, which simulates exhaustion). Peak power was improved by 3.8% in one hour compared to placebo in subjects who took just one dose of Zynamite. Of note, the amount of quercetin in Zynamite (140 mg) is significantly lower than amounts of quercetin shown to produce ergogenic effects in previous studies, suggesting that this combination may have synergistic effects.

 

 

Study links rising stress, depression in US to pandemic-related losses, media 

University of California at Irvine, September 19, 2020

Experiencing multiple stressors triggered by the COVID-19 pandemic‚ÄĒsuch as unemployment‚ÄĒand COVID-19-related media consumption are directly linked to rising acute stress and depressive symptoms across the U.S., according to a groundbreaking University of California, Irvine study.

The report appears in Science Advances.

"The pandemic is not hitting all communities equally," said lead author E. Alison Holman, UCI professor of nursing. "People have lost wages, jobs and loved ones with record speed. Individuals living with chronic mental and physical illness are struggling; young people are struggling; poor communities are struggling. Mental health services need to be tailored to those most in need right now."

In addition, the research highlights the connection between mental health and exposure to media coverage of the COVID-19 pandemic, suggesting the need to step away from the television, computer or smartphone to protect psychological well-being.

"The media is a critical source of information for people when they're faced with ambiguous, ongoing disasters," said Roxane Cohen Silver, professor of psychological science and one of the study's principal investigators. "But too much exposure can be overwhelming and lead to more stress, worry and perceived risks."

With funding from a National Science Foundation RAPID grant, Holman, Silver, and co-investigators Dana Rose Garfin and Rebecca R. Thompson conducted a national survey of more than 6,500 U.S. residents in March and April 2020, as illness and deaths were rising around the country. Using the NORC AmeriSpeak panel, the study was the first of its kind to examine early predictors of rising mental health problems across the nation. The design let researchers evaluate the effects of the pandemic as it was unfolding in real time.

"Over the course of the study, the size of the pandemic shifted dramatically," Holman said. Accordingly, people surveyed later in the study period reported the highest rate of acute stress and depressive symptoms.

The UCI team's findings offer insights into priorities for building community resilience in the face of the COVID-19 pandemic:

  • Those with pre-existing mental and physical conditions are more likely to show both acute stress and depressive symptoms.
  • Secondary stressors‚ÄĒjob and wage loss, a shortage of necessities‚ÄĒare also strong predictors in the development of these symptoms.
  • Extensive exposure to pandemic-related news and conflicting information in the news are among the strongest predictors of pandemic-specific acute stress.

"It's critical that we prioritize providing resources to communities most in need of support right now‚ÄĒthe unemployed, poor or chronically ill people, and¬†young people," Holman said. "We also encourage the public to limit exposure to media as an important public health intervention. It can prevent mental and physical health symptoms and promote resilience."

 

Curcumin protects bone properties and microarchitecture in type 2 diabetes with osteoporosis

Zhaoqing Medical College (China) and Inner Mongolia Medical University, September 17, 2020

 

According to news reporting originating in¬†Guangdong, People‚Äôs¬†Republic of China, research stated, ‚ÄúType 2 diabetic osteoporosis (T2DOP) has become a common secondary cause of osteoporosis that accelerates bone loss and leads to bone fractures. The aim of the current study was to investigate the association between the anti-osteoporotic effect of curcumin (Cur) and the transforming growth factor (TGF)beta /Smads signaling pathway.‚ÄĚ

The news reporters obtained a quote from the research from the Department of Pharmacy, “Male Sprague-Dawley rats were used in the experiments. The type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) animals were treated with Cur for 8 weeks and blood lipid markers, bone microstructure and bone biomechanics were then evaluated. The mRNA expression levels of TGF beta 1, type I TGF beta receptor (T beta RI), T beta RII and Smad2/3 were determined using reverse transcription-quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) and immunohistochemistry. The body weight of rats with type 2 diabetes-induced osteoporosis increased (P

offsite link The Gary Null Show - 09.18.20 Fri Sep 18, 2020 19:04

Could breadfruit be the next superfood? researchers say yes

Breadfruit is sustainable, environmentally friendly and a high-production crop

University of British Columbia, September 17, 2020

 

A fruit used for centuries in countries around the world is getting the nutritional thumbs-up from a team of British Columbia researchers. 

Breadfruit, which grows in abundance in tropical and South Pacific countries, has long been a staple in the diet of many people. The fruit can be eaten when ripe, or it can be dried and ground up into a flour and repurposed into many types of meals, explains UBC Okanagan researcher Susan Murch.

"Breadfruit is a traditional staple crop from the Pacific islands with the potential to improve worldwide food security and mitigate diabetes," says Murch, a chemistry professor in the newly-created Irving K. Barber Faculty of Science. "While people have survived on it for thousands of years there was a lack of basic scientific knowledge of the health impacts of a breadfruit-based diet in both humans and animals." 

Breadfruit can be harvested, dried and ground into a gluten-free flour. For the project, researchers had four breadfruits from the same tree in Hawaii, shipped to the Murch Lab at UBC Okanagan. Doctoral student Ying Liu led the study examining the digestion and health impact of a breadfruit-based diet. 

"Detailed and systematic studies of the health impacts of a breadfruit diet had not previously been conducted and we wanted to contribute to the development of breadfruit as a sustainable, environmentally-friendly and high-production crop," Liu says.

The few studies done on the product have been to examine the glycemic index of breadfruit--with a low glycemic index it is comparable to many common staples such as wheat, cassava, yam and potatoes. 

"The objective of our current study was to determine whether a diet containing breadfruit flour poses any serious health concerns," explains Liu, who conducted her research with colleagues from British Columbia Institute of Technology's Natural Health and Food Products Research Group and the Breadfruit Institute of the National Tropical Botanic Garden in Hawaii.

The researchers designed a series of studies--using flour ground from dehydrated breadfruits--that could provide data on the impacts of a breadfruit-based diet fed to mice and also an enzyme digestion model. 

The researchers determined that breadfruit protein was found to be easier to digest than wheat protein in the enzyme digestion model. And mice fed the breadfruit diet had a significantly higher growth rate and body weight than standard diet-fed mice.

Liu also noted mice on the breadfruit diet had a significantly higher daily water consumption compared to mice on the wheat diet. And at the end of the three-week-trial, the body composition was similar between the breadfruit and wheat diet-fed mice.

"As the first complete, fully-designed breadfruit diet study, our data showed that a breadfruit diet does not impose any toxic impact," says Liu. "Fundamental understanding of the health impact of breadfruit digestion and diets is necessary and imperative to the establishment of breadfruit as a staple or as a functional food in the future."

The use of breadfruit is nutritious and sustainable and could make inroads in food sustainability for many populations globally, she adds. For example, the average daily consumption of grain in the United States is 189 grams (6.67 ounces) per day. Liu suggests if a person ate the same amount of cooked breadfruit they can meet up to nearly 57 per cent of their daily fibre requirement, more than 34 per cent of their protein requirement and at the same time consume vitamin C, potassium, iron, calcium and phosphorus.

"Overall, these studies support the use of breadfruit as part of a healthy, nutritionally balanced diet," says Liu. "Flour produced from breadfruit is a gluten-free, low glycemic index, nutrient-dense and complete protein option for modern foods."

 

 

Fructose and glucose in high fructose corn syrup deliver a one-two punch to health

New study links combination of the two sugars in high fructose corn syrup to heart health risks

University of California at Davis, September 17, 2020

 

Consuming high fructose corn syrup appears to be as bad for your health as consuming sugar in the form of fructose alone, according to a new study from researchers at the University of California, Davis. The study reports health risks related to the type of sugar consumed, but also reveals novel risks when sugars are combined, which has important implications for dietary guidelines.

When it comes to health risks, sugar in the form of fructose is clearly the bad guy. This is because a majority of fructose consumed ends up in the liver. When there is too much fructose, the liver produces uric acid and fat in the form of triglycerides, which increase the risk of fatty liver, heart disease and gout. But lead investigator Kimber Stanhope, a researcher with the UC Davis School of Veterinary Medicine, says the new data shows that we shouldn't let glucose off the hook.

"It turns out that the combination of fructose and glucose found in high fructose corn syrup appears to be worse than fructose alone for some heart disease risk factors," said Stanhope. "When we planned this study, we didn't expect to find this."

Research has shown that fructose compared with glucose increases risk factors for heart disease and diabetes. This led to an assumption that the glucose in the high fructose corn syrup is benign. The new study, published in Metabolism Journal, tested this assumption by examining differences in health risk factors based on sugar type. Participants consumed beverages containing fructose, glucose, high fructose corn syrup, or an aspartame control, and researchers analyzed their blood for known risk factors for heart disease and diabetes.

The researchers expected risk factors would be highest for fructose and lowest for glucose, with high fructose corn syrup somewhere in between. This is exactly what they saw for some of the risk factors. However, for others, including the risk factors many scientists believe are the most predictive for heart disease, the increases were highest for high fructose corn syrup due to an interaction of fructose and glucose.

CONSUMER CHOICES AND DIETARY GUIDELINES 

The results of the current study suggest that dietary guidelines and consumer choices should not be based on the assumption that all adverse effects from dietary sugars are due to fructose content.

"Our study shows that nutrition is more than looking at individual food components," said first author Bettina Hieronimus with the Department of Child Nutrition at the Max-Rubner Institut in Karlsruhe, Germany. "To understand the way our food affects our bodies, we need to study diets as a whole."

 

 

We are predisposed to forgive, new research suggests

Yale University and Oxford University, September 17, 2020

     

When assessing the moral character of others, people cling to good impressions but readily adjust their opinions about those who have behaved badly, according to new research.

 

This flexibility in judging transgressors might help explain both how humans forgive -- and why they sometimes stay in bad relationships, said the study's authors.

 

The research -- conducted by psychologists at Yale, University of Oxford, University College London, and the International School for Advanced Studies -- in the journal Nature Human Behaviour.

 

"The brain forms social impressions in a way that can enable forgiveness," said Yale psychologist Molly Crockett, senior author of the paper. "Because people sometimes behave badly by accident, we need to be able to update bad impressions that turn out to be mistaken. Otherwise, we might end relationships prematurely and miss out on the many benefits of social connection."

 

Across a series of experiments, more than 1500 subjects observed the choices of two strangers who faced a moral dilemma: whether to inflict painful electric shocks on another person in exchange for money. While the "good" stranger mostly refused to shock another person for money, the "bad" stranger tended to maximize their profits despite the painful consequences. The subjects were asked their impressions of the strangers' moral character and how confident they were about those impressions.

 

Subjects rapidly formed stable, positive impressions of the good stranger and were highly confident of their impressions. However, the subjects were far less confident that the bad stranger was truly bad and could change their minds quickly. For instance, when the bad stranger occasionally made a generous choice, subjects' impressions immediately improved -- until they witnessed the stranger's next transgression."

 

This pattern of impression updating may provide some insight into why people sometimes hold on to bad relationships, Crockett said. "We think our findings reveal a basic predisposition towards giving others, even strangers, the benefit of the doubt. The human mind is built for maintaining social relationships, even when partners sometimes behave badly."

 

The research also may eventually help shed light on psychiatric disorders involving social difficulties, such as Borderline Personality Disorder.

 

"The ability to accurately form impressions of others' character is crucial for the development and maintenance of healthy relationships" said Jenifer Siegel, an Oxford doctoral student and lead author of the paper. "We have developed newtools for measuring impression formation, which could help improve our understanding of relational dysfunction."

 

 

Intermittent Fasting Diet Improves Health Without Altering The Body’s Core Clock

University of Copenhagen, Australian Catholic University and Karolinska Institutet, September 17, 2020

 

When it comes to metabolic health, it‚Äôs not just what you eat, it‚Äôs when you eat it. Studies have shown that one effective means of losing weight and tackling obesity is to reduce the number of hours in the day that you eat. Time-restricted feeding ‚Äď otherwise known as intermittent fasting ‚Äď has also been shown to improve health even before weight loss kicks in.

The biological explanation for the phenomenon remains poorly understood. So scientists from the University of Copenhagen, the Australian Catholic University and Karolinska Institutet investigated the body’s early adaptations to time-restricted feeding. Their study identified a number of key changes in the genetic activity of muscles, as well as the content of muscle fats and proteins, which could explain the positive impact of time-restricted feeding.

Novel insights on short-term time-restricted feeding

The study is the first time scientists have examined the oscillations of metabolites in skeletal muscle and in blood, as well as gene expression in skeletal muscle after time-restricted feeding. By focusing on the short-term and early effects of time-restricted feeding, the goal was to disentangle the signals that govern health from those associated with weight loss.

‚ÄúWe observe that the rhythm of skeletal muscle core clock genes is unchanged by time-restricted feeding, suggesting that any differences are driven more by diet, rather than inherent rhythms,‚ÄĚ says Postdoc Leonidas Lundell, from the Novo Nordisk Foundation Center for Basic Metabolic Research (CBMR) at the University of Copenhagen.

‚ÄúWe also see that the metabolite profile of skeletal muscle switches from being predominantly lipid based, to amino acid based, after time-restricted feeding. This coincides with changes in rhythmicity of amino acid transporters, indicating that part of the amino acid profile could be due to absorption from the blood.‚ÄĚ

Research Fellow Evelyn Parr from the Mary MacKillop Institute for Health Research at the Australian Catholic University, adds: ‚ÄúOur research is an important step towards understanding how time-restricted eating can improve metabolic health, while bridging the gap between animal models and human intervention studies. It was important to capture these early metabolic responses before assessing what changes might occur after a longer period following a time-restricted feeding pattern.‚ÄĚ

Eating behavior does not impact the body’s core clock

In the study, 11 men with overweight/obesity were assigned one of two eating protocols for a period of five days, either unrestricted feeding, or eight-hours of time restricted feeding. On the fifth day, samples were taken every four hours for a full day. After a 10-day break, they repeated the experiment following the other eating protocol.

After each intervention, the team of scientists studied the gene expression in muscles, as well as the profile of metabolites ‚Äď molecules that are formed through metabolic processes ‚Äď in the blood and muscles.

They discovered that time-restricted feeding changed the rhythmic concentration of metabolites in blood and muscle. Time-restricted feeding also influenced the rhythmic expression of genes expressed by muscle, particularly those responsible for helping the transport of amino acids, the building blocks of proteins.

Critically, the study showed that time-restricted feeding did not alter the muscle‚Äôs core clock ‚Äď the cell‚Äôs inbuilt metronome that regulates its daily cycle of activity. This suggests that the altered rhythmicity of metabolite and gene expression caused by time-restricted feeding could be responsible for the positive health impact.

‚ÄúOur findings open new avenues for scientists who are interested in understanding the causal relationship between time-restricted feeding and improved metabolic health. These insights could help develop new therapies to improve the lives of people who live with obesity,‚ÄĚ says Professor Juleen Zierath from Karolinska Institutet and CBMR at the University of Copenhagen.

 

 

 

Green soy extract could prevent cognitive dysfunction: Mouse data

University of Shizuoka (Japan), September 16, 2020

 

Intake of green soybean extract could help reverse cognitive dysfunction and its associated accumulation of beta-amyloid proteins in the brain, say researchers.

 

The accumulation of beta-amyloid proteins has long been linked to the development of brain stunting conditions including Alzheimer’s disease and other forms of dementia. 

 

The new findings come from a Japanese trial in mice with cognitive dysfunction.

 

Writing in the¬†Journal of Functional Foods,¬†the team revealed that brain functions were ‚Äėsignificantly better-preserved‚Äô in aged mice fed green soybean than age-matched control mice with or without yellow soybean feeding.

 

The molecular mechanisms of these beneficial effects on brain function were examined using transcriptome analysis. An increased expression of lipocalin-type prostaglandin D2 synthase (Ptgds) and a significant reduction in the amyloid precursor protein Aplp1 was reported by the team, led by Keiko Unno from the University of Shizuoka in Japan.

 

‚ÄúAs Ptgds binds and transports small lipophilic molecules (‚Ķ) it has been proposed as the endogenous Aő≤ chaperone,‚Ä̬†noted the team, adding that lower levels of the usually abundant protein¬†‚Äúmay play an important role in the development of dementia and of Alzheimer's disease (AD).‚ÄĚ

‚ÄúFurthermore, the amount of beta-amyloid 40 and 42 was reduced in the insoluble fraction of cerebral cortex,‚Ä̬†the team noted.

 

Unno and colleagues noted that previous research has suggested several beneficial effects of soybean components such as so isoflavones, including previous suggestions of benefits for cognitive function and the prevention of oxidative damage.

 

In the current study, the isoflavones found to be present in soybean extracts were mostly the glycosides genstin and daidzin.

 

‚ÄúThe levels of genistein and daizein, aglycones of genstin and daidzin, respectively, were very low or not detected,‚Ä̬†reported the team ‚Äď adding that the content of oligo sugars, especially sucrose, was significantly higher in green soybean than in yellow.¬†Furthermore, the contents of saponin and carotene in green soybean were found to be slightly higher in the green than in yellow, however the contents of other components were not different between green and yellow soybeans.

 

‚ÄúSoybean feeding did not change the weight of body, liver or cerebrum,‚Ä̬†Unno and colleagues said ‚Äď adding that the average food consumptions of each group were also not different.¬†

 

 

 

Coffee associated with improved survival in metastatic colorectal cancer patients

Dana Farber Cancer Institute, September 17, 2020

 

In a large group of patients with metastatic colorectal cancer, consumption of a few cups of coffee a day was associated with longer survival and a lower risk of the cancer worsening, researchers at Dana-Farber Cancer Institute and other organizations report in a new study.

The findings, based on data from a large observational study nested in a clinical trial, are in line with earlier studies showing a connection between regular coffee consumption and improved outcomes in patients with non-metastatic colorectal cancer. The study is being published today by JAMA Oncology.

The investigators found that in 1,171 patients treated for metastatic colorectal cancer, those who reported drinking two to three cups of coffee a day were likely to live longer overall, and had a longer time before their disease worsened, than those who didn't drink coffee. Participants who drank larger amounts of coffee - more than four cups a day - had an even greater benefit in these measures. The benefits held for both caffeinated and decaffeinated coffee.

The findings enabled investigators to establish an association, but not a cause-and-effect relationship, between coffee drinking and reduced risk of cancer progression and death among study participants. As a result, the study doesn't provide sufficient grounds for recommending, at this point, that people with advanced or metastatic colorectal cancer start drinking coffee on a daily basis or increase their consumption of the drink, researchers say.

"It's known that several compounds in coffee have antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and other properties that may be active against cancer," says Dana-Farber's Chen Yuan, ScD, the co-first author of the study with Christopher Mackintosh, MLA, of the Mayo Clinic School of Medicine. "Epidemiological studies have found that higher coffee intake was associated with improved survival in patients with stage 3 colon cancer, but the relationship between coffee consumption and survival in patients with metastatic forms of the disease hasn't been known."

The new study drew on data from the Alliance/SWOG 80405 study, a phase III clinical trial comparing the addition of the drugs cetuximab and/or bevacizumab to standard chemotherapy in patients with previously untreated, locally advanced or metastatic colorectal cancer. As part of the trial, participants reported their dietary intake, including coffee consumption, on a questionnaire at the time of enrollment. Researchers correlated this data with information on the course of the cancer after treatment.

They found that participants who drank two to three cups of coffee per day had a reduced hazard for death and for cancer progression compared to those who didn't drink coffee. (Hazard is a measure of risk.) Those who consumed more than four cups per day had an even greater benefit.

"Although it is premature to recommend a high intake of coffee as a potential treatment for colorectal cancer, our study suggests that drinking coffee is not harmful and may potentially be beneficial," says Dana-Farber's Kimmie Ng, MD, MPH, senior author of the study.

"This study adds to the large body of literature supporting the importance of diet and other modifiable factors in the treatment of patients with colorectal cancer," Ng adds. "Further research is needed to determine if there is indeed a causal connection between coffee consumption and improved outcomes in patients with colorectal cancer, and precisely which compounds within coffee are responsible for this benefit."

 

 

Research links increased omega-3 intake to improved cardiovascular outcomes

Ochsner Medical Center in New Orleans, Sept. 17, 2020 

 

A new study, the most comprehensive analysis of the role of omega-3 dosage on cardiovascular prevention to date, provides compelling evidence for consuming more EPA and DHA (eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid, respectively) omega-3 fats. Published in Mayo Clinic Proceedings, the meta-analysis is an in-depth review of 40 clinical trials. According to the research, EPA and DHA omega-3 intake is associated with reduced risk of coronary heart disease (CHD) events, the cause of 7.4 million deaths globally each year, and reduced risk of myocardial infarction (heart attack), including fatal heart attack.  

Specifically, the study found that EPA+DHA supplementation is associated with a statistically significant reduced risk of:

  • myocardial infarction (13%)¬†
  • fatal myocardial infarction (35%)¬†
  • CHD events (10%)¬†
  • CHD mortality (9%)

"The study supports the notion that EPA and DHA intake contributes to cardioprotection, and that whatever you're getting through the diet, you likely need more," said Carl "Chip" Lavie, MD, a cardiologist at Ochsner Health in New Orleans and one of the study authors.

Cardiovascular benefits appear to increase with dosage. The researchers found that adding an extra 1000 mg of EPA and DHA per day decreased the risk of cardiovascular disease and heart attack even more: risk of cardiovascular disease events decreased by 5.8% and risk for heart attack decreased by 9.0%. The study looked at dosages of up to 5500 mg/day.

This research corroborates the results of an earlier meta-analysis from Harvard School of Public Health, published in October 2019, that looked at EPA and DHA dosage using the 13 largest clinical studies. This new paper encompasses more than triple the number of studies, which is the totality of the evidence to date.

"When separate analyses arrive at similar results, that's not only validating; it also underscores the science base needed to inform future intake recommendations," said co-author Aldo Bernasconi, PhD, Vice President of Data Science for the Global Organization for EPA and DHA Omega-3s (GOED), which commissioned this study. "Because this paper included more studies and all dosages, the estimates for a dose-response are more precise and the conclusions stronger."

EPA and DHA omega-3s are long-chain, marine-based fatty acids. Eating fish, particularly fatty fish such as salmon, anchovies and sardines, is the optimal way to get EPA and DHA omega-3s, since fish also provides other beneficial nutrients. However, most people around the world eat much less than the amount of fish recommended, so supplementing with omega-3s helps close the gap. 

"People should consider the benefits of omega-3 supplements, at doses of 1000 to 2000 mg per day ‚Äď far higher than what is typical, even among people who regularly eat fish," added¬†Dr. Lavie. "Taking omega-3 supplements is a relatively low-cost, high-impact way to improve heart health with few associated risks."

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